PORTUGAL HISTORY AND EVENTS - SECOND REPUBLIC

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12th Period - Second Republic of Portugal
(20th Century)

20th C. --
--

Military Administration (1926-1932)

1926 31st May - José Mendes Cabeçadas becomes Provisional President and Prime Minister (1926)
1926 3rd June - António de Oliveira Salazar appointed Finance Minister
1926 3rd June - Congress of the Republic of Portugal (National Assembly) is dissolved
1926 3rd June - All Heads of Municipalities are substituted
1926 3rd June - The "Carbonária" (Police) is banned
1926 3rd June - All political parties are banned
1926 17th June - General Costa da Gomes provokes new military coup
1926 19th June - General Manuel Oliviera Costa da Gomes appointed Prime Minister (1926)
1926 19th June - António de Oliveira Salazar resigns
1926 19th June - Offices of Republican newspapers are sacked
1926 22nd June - Censorship is instituted
1926 17th June - General Manuel Costa da Gomes becomes President (1926)
1926 9th July - General Costa da Gomes is dismissed and goes into exile
1926 9th July - Army coup places General António Óscar de Fragosa Carmona as Prime Minister (1926-1928)
1926 9th July - António Óscar de Fragoso Carmona as President (1926-1951)
1926 15th September - Another failed army coup
1926 16th December - Political police force is created in Lisbon
1926 2nd  November - Offices of Republican Syndicates are sacked
1926 August - Another failed army coup
1926 December 1st - Students in Lisbon demonstrate against military dictatorship
1927 3rd February - Unsuccessful Republican revolt led by Agalão Lança, first in Porto, followed by the Algarve, and finally some days later in Lisbon - some 1000 people arrested and deported to Colonies
1927 March - Political police force created in Porto
1927 April - Communist newspaper offices sacked
1927 May - Minimum school years reduced from six to four and separation of sexes in classrooms
1927 May - Trade Union Associated is dissolved
1927 26th August - Clashes between loyal Government troops and Republican rebels result in 150 killed and 800 injured.
1928 Construction commenced on Basilica de Fátima
1928 Failed coup by Republicans - Portuguese Communist Party offices closed
1928 February - Propaganda Commission is created
1928 18th April - José Vicente de Freitas becomes Prime Minister (1928-1929)
1928 26th April - António de Oliveira Salazar appointed Finance Minister for 2nd time and reorganises the national budget
1928 20th July - The commander and his soldiers in the Castelo de São Jorge in Lisbon revolted. This revolt was reflected in other parts of the country but all were quickly dispelled
1929 8th July - Artur Ivens Ferraz becomes Prime Minister (1929-1930)
1929 Catholic religious Orders are again permitted in Portugal
1929 24th October - Beginning of World Economic Depression in the USA.
1929 The Communist Party led by General Bento Gonçalves goes underground
1930 Colonial Act - defines Portuguese status and all its Colonies
1930 30th July - António de Oliveira Salazar creates his new Party, the "União Nacional".
1930 António de Oliveira Salazar presents his first declaration of adapting a dictatorial policy
1930 21st January - Domingos Augusto Alves da Costa e Oliveira becomes Prime Minister (1930-1932)
1931 Spain rejects their monarchy system and becomes a Republic
1931 June - Large shipment of arms for rebels discovered in Lisbon docks
1931 4th April - Inhabitants of Madeira support a General Strike against price of imported grain but are quelled by armed forces - riots spread to the Azores by 7th of April
1931 June - Foundation of "Aliança Republicana Socialista" party led by General Norton de Matos
1931 26th August - Military and civilians join together and revolt in streets of Lisbon is violently quelled
--

"Estado Novo" Administration (1932-1974)

1932 5th July - António de Oliveira Salazar becomes Prime Minister (1932-1968)
1932 Death of Manuel II still in exile in England
1933 Creation of "Estado Novo" - dictatorship doctrine of António de Oliveira Salazar with only one Political Party allowed
1933 Code of National Labour published banning all free Trade Unions
1933 26th August - Military rebellion in Bragança quickly quelled
1933 29th August - Creation of National Secret Political Police (PVDE)
1933 Censorship of Press is established
1934 Bento Gonçalves the leader of the Communist Party is arrested
1934 16th June - "Expo Colonias" in Porto
1934 18th January - General Strike and hundreds of demonstrators are arrested - Rioters take control of Marinha Grande but they are later severely put down by army
1934 16th December - Election results show 81.6% in favour of Oliveira Salazar
1935 Birth of sculptor Jorge Vieira (1934-1998)
1935 Birth of painter Paula Rego (1935-)
1935 17th February - Presidential Election results show 83.8% in favour of re-election of António Óscar de Fragoso Carmona
1935 10th April - Secret societies are banned in Portugal - however, leading members of Parliament remain members of the Masons
1935 Captain Mendes Norton and Dr Rolão Pedro are arrested for planning a "coup d'etat"
1936 Creation of "Mocidade Portuguesa" under the command of Marcelo Caetano - compulsory paramilitary youth organisation for both men
1936 Outbreak of Spanish Civil War and Portugal supports Nationalist Party led by General Francisco Franco (1936-1939)
1936 Creation of "Batalião de Viriatos" - Portuguese troops to support Nationalist Party in Spain
1936 National Secret Political Police (PVDE) is trained by German and Italian Fascists
1936 Birth of sculptor Jorge Vieira (1934-1998)
1936 Birth of painter Júlio Pomar (1936-)
1936 9th September - Two naval vessels attempt to desert to Republican forces fighting in Spain
1937 29th October - First political deported prisoners arrive at Tarrafal.
1937 Female section of "Mocidade Portuguesa" created
1937 "Campo de Contração do Tarrefal" opened in the Cape Verde islands for political prisoners - closed in 1945
1937 January - Students revolt in Lisbon and attack several State offices
1937 4th April - Bomb attempt on life of Oliveira Salazar
1937 10th June - Portugal participates in the International Exhibition in Paris, France
1937 4th July - Bomb attempt fails to assassinate Salazar in his car
1938 15th October - Radical political activist Emídio Santana fails in his plot to assassinate António Salazar
1938 30th October - Elections results show 83.7% in favour of Oliveira Salazar
1939 17th Mar - Portugal declares with Spain neutrality in outbreak of World War II and signs a Treaty between the two countries providing military support to each other in times of need
1939 Portugal participates in the International Exhibition in San Francisco, USA
1940 Portugal terminates South African control over Mozambique harbours, railways and mail
1940 Portuguese diplomatic relations with the Vatican partially restored
1940 International Exhibition of Portugal and its Possessions, Lisbon
1940 May - Álvaro Cunhal arrested and imprisoned
1940 December - Spain's leader Francisco Franco prepares a plan to invade Portugal and attack Gibraltar. Hitler dissuades him from this offensive
1940 22nd October - Political and Security Police forces remoulded under the title of "Polícia Internacional de Defesa do Estado" (PIDE)
1941 11th June - Salazar commences his persecution of members of the Communist Party.
1941 12th October - Germany sinks Portuguese merchant vessel to provoke Salazar into selling the mineral wolfram to Germany - they sink a second ship in December forcing Salazar to agree
1941 Timor is invaded by Dutch and Australian forces
1942 António Salazar meets General Franco (Spain), to confirm mutual non-aggression pact
1942 13th February - Salazar meets with Gerneral Franco of Spain in Seville
1942 11th September - Political activist General Bento Gonçalves dies in prison at Tarrafal
1943 Portugal grants the U.S.A. Air Force usage of the air base at Pico in the Azores - this base was to prove essential in the War II
1943 Birth of footballer Eusébio da Silva Ferreira (1943-)
1944 10th June - The "Estádio Nacional de Jamor" inaugurated
1944 14th June - Salazar bends to the pressure of the British to stop supplying "wolfram" to Germany
1945 Birth of Dom Duarte in Switzerland, 22nd Duque de Bragança (1945-), Príncipe de Beira
1945 National Secret Political Police (PVDE) is renamed (PIDE)
1945 8th October - "Movemento de Unidade Democrática" (MUD) is created with official permission
1945 Famine causes rebellion in cotton field workers in Angola
1945 Birth of Duarte Pio de Bragança 24th Duke of Bragança (1945-)
1946 11th October - Aborted attempt by military led by Lieutenant Quievoga Chaves to stage a "coup d'etat"
1947 Birth of sportsman Carlos Lopes (1947-)
1947 10th April - Aborted by Republican military supporters in Tomar
1948 In the Presidential election leading conservative politician Norton de Matos failed to be elected
1948 25th June - Death of political activist Bento de Jesus Caraça
1949 Portugal is included into the organization of NATO
1949 President António Óscar de Fragoso Carmona meets with Francisco Franco of Spain
1949 "Movemento de Unidade Democrática" (MUD) supports General Norton de Matos who fails in a rigged Presidential election
1949 António Egas Moniz awarded Nobel Prize for Medicine
1949 24th October - Elections results show 87.6% in favour of Oliveira Salazar
1949 13th November - Presidential Election results show 77.6% in favour of re-election of António Óscar de Fragoso Carmona
1950 27th February - Portuguese Government rejects suggestion that Goa becomes part of India
1951 18th April - António de Oliveira Salazar as Prime Minister acts as Provisional President due to death of António Óscar de Fragoso Carmona(1951-1968)
1951 19th July - Presidential Election results show 77.6% in favour of Francisco Craveiro Lopes
1951 21st July - Francisco Higino Craveiro Lopes becomes President (1951-1958)
1951 All Portuguese colonies are renamed "Overseas Provinces" in an attempt to avert international political criticism
1952 1st June - Food rationing introduced during the war period is removed
1953 "Lei Orgânica Ultramar Português" - Law granting equality of opportunity in Portuguese Overseas Territories regardless of origin and education
1953 8th November - National elections return 120 União Nacional members and opposition registers only 10% of the total vote
1954 Oil is encountered in the north of Angola at Cabinda
1954 Amílar Cabral founds in Guinea the MUD Party (Movimento de União Democratico) - he later also found another Party, PAIGC (Partido de Independência Nacional de Guiné e Cabo Verde)
1954 Dadra and Nagar Haveli Portuguese enclaves in Goa are occupied by India
1955 Portugal is admitted as a Member of the United Nations Organisation
1955 Portugal claim on the return of territories of Goa in the International Court of the Haque is upheld - India ignores the verdict
1955 Calouste Gulbenkian dies and wills his fortune to create a Cultural Foundation in Portugal
1955 7th July - Marcello Caetano is nominated to the Presidents Council
1956 "Partido Africano da Independência da Guiné e Capo Verde" is founded by Amílcar Cabral
1957 "Frente Nacional de Libertação de Angola" (FLNA) is founded in northern Angola
1957 6th October - 1st Republican Congress held in Aveiro
1958 Birth of sportswoman Rosa Mota (1958-)
1958 8th June - Presidential Election results show 52.6% in favour of Admiral Américo Rodriques Tomáz - the Democratic candidate General Humberto Delgado was his only opponent
1958 9th August - Américo de Deus Rodrigues Tomáz becomes President (1958-1974)
1959 Portuguese soldier fire on protesters killing 50 at Bissau in Guinea
1959 12th March - Aborted attempt by Catholic military officers in Lisbon to stage a "coup d'etat"
1960 3rd June - Álvaro Cunhal escapes from Peniche prison near Óbidos with 9 other prisoners on January 4th
1960 Portugal became a founding member of European Free Trade Association (EFTA)
1961 Acts of organised rebel sabotage commence in Guinea
1961 António de Oliveira Salazar is appointed as Minister of National Defence in order to tackle the war in Africa
1961 1st January - Beja military led by Manuel Serra and Captain Varela Gomes stage a revolt which is quelled by forces of the State
1961 Famine causes another rebellion in Angola and the start of the Colonial War with an attack by FLNA on the capital Luanda on February 4th
1961 "União do Povo Angolano" (UPA) attacks in northern Angola killing hundreds of Portuguese colonialist and Africans
1961 22nd January - Captain Henrique Galvão hijacks the passenger boat "Santa Maria" to draw attention to suffering under political dictatorship  in Portugal
1961 3rd February - Rebel natives of MPCA (Movemento de Liberação de Angola), assault two main prisons in Luanda, Angola leaving many injured and dead
1961 March - Portuguese troops commence their attempts to recover rebel controlled parts of Angola
1961 3rd March - A number of Portuguese settlers in the north of Luanda are massacred
1961 9th August - Portuguese troops retake town of Numbuangongo in Angola
1961 November - Palma Inácio distributes anti-government leaflets by air over Lisbon, Alentejo and Algarve
1961 4th December - A civil TAP airline is commandeered by Captain Henrique Galvão to drop over Lisbon and the Alentejo leaflets supporting the cause of Democracy
1961 17th December - India annexes and occupies the Portuguese colonies of Goa, Damão and Diu
1961 19th December - Assassination of Marcelo José António Dias Coelho in Lisbon - presumably by agents of PIDE
1962 The FNLA (Frente Nacional de Liberação de Angola) is formed by rebel leaders in Angola
1962 "Frente de Libertação de Moçambique" (MLF) is founded in Dar es Salaam in Tanzania
1962 Large student demonstration against the regime in Lisbon is suppressed by the Police
1962 PIDE uncover a plot by junior army officers to stage a "coup d'etat"
1963 António Salazar meets with General Franco in Mérida, Spain
1963 Rebel military attack Portuguese military camp at Tipe, Guiné
1963 "Frente para a Libertação de Enclave de Cabinda" is founded and declare War on Portuguese colonialists
1964 Freedom fighters FRELIMO led by Eduardo Chirambo Moudlame attack Meude and gain control of most of northern Mozambique
1964 In Portuguese Guinea the joining of "The Peoples Army" with "The Peoples Guerrillas" forms the PAIGC
1963 António Salazar meets with General Franco in Mérida, Spain
1965 Portuguese troops temporary regain control of rebel areas in Guinea
1965 13th February - Portuguese PIDE agents assinate Humberto Delgado in Spain
1966 6th August - Opening of "Ponte Salazar" over River Tagus - longest suspension bridge in Europe - renamed later after 1974 Revolution as "Ponte 25 de Abril"
1966 29th July - National Football team reach semi-finals in World Cup
1966 Creation in Portuguese in Angola of UNITA (União Nacional para a Independência Total de Angola), headed by Jonas Malheiro Savimbi
1967 17th May - Camilo Mortágua robs Banco de Portugal in Figueira da Foz for political funds
1967 PAIGC had achieved occupation of two thirds of Portuguese Guinea
1968 25th September - António de Oliveira Salazar resigns due to ill health
1968 25th September - Marcello das Neves Alves Caetano appointed Prime Minister - real power remains in the hands of President Admiral Américo Tómaz and the pro-Salazar "Ultras"
1968 General António de Spinola arrives in Angola to lead new military campaign against guerrillas
1969 The official only Party "União Nacional" is renamed "Accão Nacional Popular"
1969 The Police PIDE is renamed as DGS
1969 Second Congress of Democratic Opposition to the regime held in Aveiro
1969 May - President of Coimbra Academic Association is jailed for provoking political unrest
1969 13th February - Eduardo Moudlame assassinated in Dar-es-Salam - his leadership of the FRELIMO is taken over by Samora Marchel
1969 10th September - Election results show 88% in Marcello Caetano
1969 Marcello das Neves Alves Caetano fails in his attempt to open the regime to political tolerance
1970 Portuguese amphibious forces attack and free hundreds of prisoners of war held by the PAIGC in Conakry in Guinea
1970 27th July - António de Oliveira Salazar dies
1970 20th August - First women joins Portuguese Cabinet
1970 The extreme left-wing radicals commence a bomb campaign on military and civilian targets - which include banks (1970-1974)
1971 Samora Marchel leader of FRELIMO in Mozambique requests the aid of United Nations to free its citizens from Portuguese rule
1971 12th December - Azores Meeting - Richard Nixon of the USA and Georges Pompidou of France meet in Azores
1972 Birth of footballer Luís Figo(1972-)
1972 10th April - Américo Thomaz visits Brazil to negotiate return of bones of Dom Pedro IV to Portugal(1972-)
1972 25th July - Presidential Election results in favour of Admiral Américo Rodriques Tomáz
1973 Amílar Cabral is assassinated in Conakry
1973 Amílar Cabral leader of PAIGC is assassinated in Conakry
1973 Independence of Guinea-Bissau (Portuguese Guinea) is declared
1973 4th April - Congress of Democratic Oppositio in Aveiro
1973 September - Meeting in Cascais of 200 anti-Salazar regime military officers
1973 1st December - Junior officers from the colonies meet secretly in Óbidos and create the "Movimento dos Capitães" and elect their leaders - Vitor Alves, Otelo Saraiva de Carvalho and Vasco Lourenço9
1973 Foundation of University of Minho in Braga
1973 December - General Kaulza de Arraiga putsch fails due to lack of other military support
1974 February - General António de Spinola publishes his book "Portugal e o Futuro" and is removed from his position as he shows himself to in conflict to the regime - the book is inspires the army activists in plotting the downfall of the regime
1974 5th March - Leaders of "Movimento dos Capitães" meet secretly in Cascais
1974 16th March - A military anti-regime coup from Caldas da Rainha organised by "Movimento dos Capitães fails in its attempt
1974 Revolution by the armed forces and supported by the people on the 25th of April - only four people died on the day - also known as the "Carnation Revolution"
-- --
11th Period First Republic of Portugal (20th Century)
13th Period Third Republic of Portugal (20th Century)
 

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NOTE
While we have taken every care in compiling the above information some conflicting dates, information and spelling were encountered. In such cases, we have opted to use our own discretion in choosing the information we think may be correct. Any additions or corrections should be sent to editor@portugal-info.net - Page last revised 02.06.2008




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